Forsythia (Forsythia) is a plant from the Maslin family.
It is remarkable in that it begins to bloom in early spring, when other plants are just beginning to "wake up" after hibernation. Forsythia is especially popular in Europe - its bright yellow flowering bushes are an excellent decoration of city streets.
Forsythia got its name from the Scottish botanist W. Forsyth, who first brought it to Europe from China.
Due to the unpretentiousness of Forsythe, it can be easily grown in a summer cottage, and besides, it is decorative not only in spring. but also in the fall (its leaves acquire a golden or purple-purple color).
Bushes in the “company” with conifers look especially impressive.
Types and varieties of forsythia
Among the species forms of forsythia there are both dwarf forms and tall, tree-like ones, reaching a height of up to 3 m, with straight and drooping branches, green, yellow or variegated foliage.
Suitable for growing in a temperate climate zone:
• European Forsythia is one of the most winter-hardy species. It reaches a height of 2-3 m. It blooms with bright yellow bell-shaped flowers;
• Forsythia Giralda - outwardly similar to European Forsythia. The flowers have a twisted shape, abundantly cover the branches;
• Forsythia ovate - a small spreading shrub (height up to 1.5 m). The most spectacular varieties: Tetragold, Goldsauber, Dresdner Forfrueling, Spring Gloria;
• Forsythia intermediate — an erect shrub with a spreading crown up to 3 m in height. It is cold-resistant (withstand up to -25 ° C during shelter). Popular varieties: Golden Time, Fiesta, Fensiflora, Beatriks.
More thermophilic and suitable for cultivation only in the southern regions:
• Forsythia greenery - shrub with powerful erect branches. Blossoms in bright yellow with a greenish tint flowers, 1-3 each in leaf axils;
• Forsythia drooping or drooping - a tree-like shrub reaching up to 3 m in height. It has a high decorative effect: in the fall, its green foliage becomes yellow or purple (depending on the variety).
This shrub can be planted both in early spring and in autumn (before stable frosts begin). Although Forsythia is shade-tolerant, it is better to choose a place for it sunny and protected from strong winds. Soil prefers alkaline, permeable. If the site has heavy clay soils, they are pre-drained and lime.
They dig a planting hole 0.5x0.5x0.6 m. At the bottom, make a drainage with a thickness of 15-20 cm from large pebbles, gravel or broken brick. A layer of coarse sand (10 cm) is poured on it, and on top of it is a mixture of sheet soil and peat (2: 1). A glass of wood ash is added to each well. After that, bushes are planted and watered. If planting was carried out in the fall, then the earth around the seedlings is mulched, and the plants themselves are covered with breathable material.
If it is supposed to plant Forsythia in a row, then between the bushes leave a distance of 1.5-2 m.
Forsythia: cultivation methods (photo)
Forsythia is grown mainly vegetatively (by cuttings and layering).
In the middle climatic zone, Forsythia is grown mainly by summer cuttings. After flowering the bush (in June - early July), green shoots with short internodes are selected and cut into cuttings of about 15 cm each. The lower leaves are cut off and the upper ones are cut in half. For more reliable rooting, the cuttings are soaked in a solution of the root stimulant (rootin, heteroauxin) in accordance with the instructions for the drug. Prepared cuttings are planted in perlite or sand in a greenhouse.
In the fall (in October), lignified cuttings are rooted. They are immediately planted in the ground to such a depth that 2-3 kidneys remain above the surface. To seedlings do not freeze in the winter, they must be covered with a layer of dry leaves. In the spring, shelter is removed. By autumn, the surviving seedlings are transplanted to a permanent place.
Rooting cuttings of forsythia
Forsythia is also grown by layering. For this, after flowering is completed, the lower young shoots are used. In several places, twigs make cuts from the bottom, bend the shoots to the ground and pin them. Incised places are sprinkled with soil and periodically moistened. The following spring, rooted shoots are separated from the mother bush and transplanted to a permanent place. Young plants will bloom in a year. //mtdata.ru/u16/photo6D59/20770717304-0/original.jpg Forsythia propagation by layering
You can try to grow forsythia from seeds, you just have to be patient - the process takes a long time. In addition, the percentage of germination of Forsythia seeds is quite low and amounts to 35-50%. Seeds are harvested after they fully ripen in the fall. At the end of March they are planted in boxes with nutritious soil, watered and put in a greenhouse or covered with glass. Periodically, the crops are aired and moistened. The first shoots appear in about a month. When the seedlings reach 4-5 cm in height, it is dived into separate pots. The next year, young plants are planted in open ground. For the winter they are covered with a 15-20 centimeter layer of dry leaves. The bushes will bloom in 4-6 years.
Forsythia: care (photo)
Thanks to the unpretentiousness of Forsythia, caring for her is simple.
With a sufficient rainfall in the summer, additional irrigation of Forsythia is not required. In a dry summer, this shrub is watered 1-2 times a month with 10 liters of water for each adult bush. Immediately after watering, the soil under the plants is loosened to a depth of 15-20 cm to improve air access to the root system.
The Forsythia feeding schedule includes three stages:
• in the spring (after the snow has fallen), organic fertilizers (rotted manure or compost) are applied under the tree-trunk circle, after which they are watered abundantly;
• in April, make mineral fertilizers (60-70g / m2);
• after flowering (at this time the plants begin to lay flower buds for the next year), the shrub is fed once again with complex mineral fertilizer (for example, Kemira Universal, Agricola, Bona Forte, etc.).
On a note! Dry fertilizers are applied along the contour of the crown of the bush - this will ensure their maximum consumption by the root system of the plant.
An essential component of forcing care is pruning. With the help of pruning, the bush is given the desired shape, the density and height of the crown are regulated. Sanitary pruning is carried out annually. At the same time, broken, dried, frozen branches in winter are removed.
After flowering in adult bushes, the branches are shortened by half.
Once every 3-5 years, anti-aging pruning is performed on old bushes. In this case, all branches are cut to a height of 4-6 cm from the ground. This procedure activates the growth of new shoots.
Forsythia is covered for the winter: the trunk circle is covered with dry leaves (10 cm layer), the branches are bent to the ground and covered with spruce branches.
Forsythia Cultivation Problems
Forsythia is resistant to many diseases. Problems with its cultivation arise with improper care of it.
If the plant looks stunted and wilted, despite abundant watering, then most likely there was a problem with the roots - they rotted. Forsythia does not tolerate waterlogging. In this case, you should dig a bush, examine the root system: cut out rotten areas, and disinfect the remaining living roots in an antifungal drug (gamair, foundationazole). The plant is transplanted to a new place.
Massive premature yellowing of Forsythia leaves, and subsequently wilting of the bush, indicates that the plant is affected by bacteriosis. In the cross section of the branch, dark affected vessels are visible. It is impossible to save the plant - it must be uprooted and burned.