Magnolia is a beautiful tree that will fill the garden with a wonderful vanilla aroma during the flowering period; it begins in April. Most trees at this time are not yet covered with leaves, and magnolia is fragrant with colors.
In nature, you can admire its beauty in the Crimea, this is a plant for a warm climate. But, contrary to popular belief, it is possible to successfully grow magnolia in the conditions of central Russia. To do this, you need to know how to properly care for the plant. And it’s very easy!
The plant belongs to the magnolia family, which has more than 70 species. Magnolia trees can be with a wide pyramidal crown or spherical. The height of the plant depends on the variety, some specimens reach up to 20 meters, but more often magnolia does not grow more than 5-8 meters.
The color palette of the plant is diverse, there are trees with white, purple, pink, red or lilac flowers. Of most varieties, only some of them can be grown in the conditions of central Russia; the rest do not tolerate the harsh climate.
Photo and description of magnolia varieties for growing in central Russia
In nature, magnolia is divided into several varieties:
• deciduous plants;
• evergreen trees.
The second group of plants is not able to tolerate frosts, so its cultivation is possible only in greenhouses at a special temperature.
Under the conditions of Russia, deciduous magnolias are grown, which respond to temperature changes less painfully, only the flowering periods shift. Winter-hardy and conditionally winter-hardy varieties can be distinguished from this group of plants. In the latter, in severe frosts, only part of the flower buds freezes.
Winter-hardy varieties include:
1. Magnolia Cobus.
These are trees up to 10 meters high. They have a very interesting crown, which in the first years of cultivation has a pyramidal shape and changes to spherical in the process of growth. The plant is considered one of the hardy and winter-hardy varieties. The tree blooms with white luxurious flowers in April-May. In summer, the color of the leaves is dark green; by autumn it is replaced by yellow-brown. Leaf fall in this species comes closer to mid-autumn. It is rarely grown from seeds, since the first flowering occurs only after 30 years.
2. Magnolia is stellate.
It is a shrub up to 5 meters high with an oval crown. Flowering is remembered by a very persistent aroma that envelops the entire garden. The first flowers bloom in March. After flowering, the shrub blooms dark green leaves, which by the fall acquire a bronze hue.
3. Magnolia Lebner.
This is a hybrid of the above varieties, which adopted the best qualities of parent plants:
• frost resistance;
• beautiful crown;
• unsurpassed aroma.
Magnolia Lebner - a tree with a spherical crown, the height of which reaches 10 meters. The flowers are white with a slight pink haze, blooming in April. The leaves are dark, in the fall - bronze.
Less winter-hardy varieties include varieties commonly found on the market:
1. Magnolia Sulange.
This species is a tree up to 5-8 meters tall. It blooms in April, very fragrant pink flowers that look like tulips. The leaves, like all varieties, are green, but in the fall they acquire a mustard hue.
2. Ash Magnolia.
This is not only hardy, but also a very beautiful deciduous tree. Flowering occurs in the second year after planting the plant in the garden. Refers to late flowering species. It usually blooms in late May with huge creamy flowers. The leaves of the plant are similar to tropical, reaching a length of up to 70 cm. This type of magnolia almost does not suffer from return frosts, which makes it most attractive for gardeners.
Growing Magnolias: All About Planting (Photo)
Successful cultivation of magnolia begins with the selection of a seedling. It is better to give preference to plants with a closed root system.
When planting a magnolia, you need to take into account its features:
• the plant does not tolerate drafts and cold winds. Therefore, the site must be selected protected;
• grows poorly in areas with calcareous soil. You can correct the situation by adding sour peat to the ground;
• does not tolerate heavy and waterlogged soil. They select a place without stagnation of groundwater.
The best place to plant magnolia is the south side of the site, well-lit, but without direct sunlight. The soil is prepared fertile and very loose.
Landing pit preparation
The correct landing pit for magnolia should exceed the size of its root system three times. The soil is pre-mixed with compost and sand. A magnolia seedling is planted so that the root neck is above ground level. After planting, the plant is abundantly watered and the soil around it must be mulched. To do this, use peat, spruce branches, sand.
Experienced gardeners prefer autumn planting, when the tree has already stopped its growth. It is carried out in the middle or end of October, until severe frosts come, but there is no more sweltering heat.
Good results are shown by planting magnolia in the spring. But there is a risk that return frosts will destroy the young plant. Spring planting is carried out in April. If the weather is favorable, and frost is not expected, then you can try this method, but at your own risk.
Important! 100% survival of seedlings occurs only with the correct autumn planting!
How to care for magnolia
Not only the beauty of the tree, but also its frost resistance depends on proper care.
The plant does not tolerate drought, especially in the first years of cultivation. It is necessary to water magnolia plentifully, but not too often. In extreme heat, the root system should not be allowed to dry out. Mulching will help preserve soil moisture. It not only warms the roots in winter, but also nourishes the plant, improves the structure of the soil.
Nutrition and nutrition of magnolia
Magnolia is very fond of various top dressing. You can apply fertilizer from early spring to autumn. Using nitrogen top dressing, you need to exercise maximum caution, because its excess leads to a decrease in winter hardiness of the plant. The introduction of nitrogen-containing fertilizers ends by mid-July.
Important! In the first two years of cultivation, magnolia is not fertilized. Feeding begins with the third season.
To fertilize the seedlings of magnolia, use ready-made fertilizers or prepared independently. From the stores you can consider mineral fertilizer "Kemira-Universal" or specialized fertilizing for magnolias, for example, from AGRECOL "For magnolias".
You can prepare a nutrient solution yourself. To do this, use 25-30 grams of ammonium nitrate, 15-20 grams of urea, 1 kg of mullein. All components are mixed and diluted in 10 liters of water. Ready fertilizer is watered at the rate of 40 liters per plant.
Advice! If the plant was overfed, then you can notice this at the end of July. Old leaves begin to dry prematurely. The situation can be corrected by abundant watering.
When growing magnolia, forming pruning is not used. In the spring, sanitary pruning is carried out if there are shoots damaged by frost, dry or growing inside the bush. As a rule, all frozen shoots are cut to healthy wood. Places of cuts are best treated with garden var.
Magnolia Wintering: Shelter
In conditions of central Russia, even winter-hardy varieties of magnolia are best covered for the period of cold weather. Spring return frosts will destroy flower buds at annual growths and flowering can not be expected.
For shelter apply burlap. It is wrapped in a tree trunk in two layers, I try to avoid injury to the branches. The tree trunk circle also needs to be covered for the winter, but it needs to be done on frozen ground. Use a thick layer of mulch. If you shelter a tree earlier, then mice will inevitably settle in it.